Heather E. Campbell

Claremont Graduate University
Department of Politics & Government

150 E 10th Street
Claremont, CA
heather.campbell@cgu.edu |  Visit Personal Website

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My current research agenda focuses on understanding causes of and solutions to the often empirically found race/ethnicity-based environmental injustice. I have used regression analysis in this endeavor, and have used agent-based modeling as a formal, experimental method that takes in to account emergence, dynamics, and complexity--all of which seem necessary for urban policy (see Campbell, Kim and Eckerd, 2015, Rethinking Environmental Justice in Sustainable Cities). Now, my co-authors and I are focusing on a case-study method to understand details of community success in getting polluted sites cleaned. Broadly, my field is urban environmental policy analysis.

Eckerd, Adam, Heather E. Campbell, and Yushim Kim. Forthcoming. “Community Privilege and Environmental Justice: An Agent-Based Analysis.” Review of Policy Research.
Abstract: Several theories compete to explain observed race- and ethnicity-based environmental injustice in society. This paper focuses on analyzing the extent to which firms' siting decisions based on community privilege can explain this outcome. A unique feature of this analysis is that we include analysis of both unwanted land uses (disamenity firms) and desired land uses (amenity firms). The environmental justice analysis of amenities other than green spaces is rare, but amenities are crucial components of urban areas to which environmental justice studies must attend. We use an agent-based model to explore community outcomes when environmental disamenities choose locations based on low community privilege, and compare this with scenarios in which disamenities only seek to minimize the cost of land. We also assess differences in environmental justice outcomes when amenities choose locations in areas with high community privilege. While disamenities' focus on locating in areas with low community privilege indeed affects environmental equity, the effect of amenity location is also important, and there are powerful interaction effects. The importance of privilege-based location is found in these simulations regardless of which social group—majority or minority—is assumed to be the privileged group. This study suggests a limitation of EJ policies and models that focus on the politics of disamenity siting without considering the politics of amenity siting.
URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ropr.12214/full
Al-Kohlani, Sumaia A. and Heather E. Campbell. 2016. “Rank-Order Implications of Social Construction Theory: Does Air Quality Depend on Social Constructions?” Policy Sciences 49 (4): 1-22.
Abstract: In their theory of social constructions of target populations, Schneider and Ingram argue that in degenerative policy systems policy designs and policy outcomes will disproportionately benefit those socially constructed as Advantaged and disproportionately harm those socially constructed as Deviants (1997). Though heretofore unexamined, an implication of Schneider and Ingram’s model presented in Policy Design for Democracy (1997) is that the effects of policy with widespread outcomes should be rankable with respect to targets’ social constructions, with Advantaged receiving less than Contenders who receive less than Dependents who receive less than Deviants of bad outcomes, and vice versa for good outcomes. Air pollution policies affect members of all four types of socially constructed groups, air pollution is well known to have social justice components, and air pollution is of particular interest because of its seeming universal application. So we performed an empirical, quantitative analysis of this rank-order hypothesis using data on air pollution in cities in California’s Central Valley. The analysis finds evidence that social constructions of subpopulations in Central Valley cities help to explain the incidence of air pollution in the hypothesized rank-order way. The results provide new evidence of the value of the Schneider and Ingram (Policy design for democracy. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, 1997) model in the area of outcomes, and new evidence regarding the social justice of seemingly universal policies.
URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11077-016-9251-3
DOI: 10.1007/s11077-016-9251-3
Campbell, Heather E., Yushim Kim and Adam Eckerd. 2014. “Local Zoning and Environmental Justice: An Agent-Based Model Analysis.” Urban Affairs Review 50 (4):521-552.
Abstract: This article presents an agent-based computational analysis of the effects of externality zoning on environmental justice (EJ). We experiment with two ideal types of externality zoning: proactive and reactive. In the absence of zoning, environmental injustice emerges and minority agents have lower average environmental quality than majority agents. With proactive zoning, which allows polluting firms only in designated zones, EJ problems are less severe and appear more tractable. With reactive zoning, which creates buffering zones around polluting firms, environmental injustice tends to emerge more quickly as compared with proactive zoning but tends to decline over time. This analysis examines a possible policy tool available for cities to ameliorate environmental injustice.
DOI: 10.1177/1078087413505736
Kim, Yushim, Heather E. Campbell, and Adam Eckerd. 2014. “Residential Choice Constraints and Environmental Justice.” Social Science Quarterly 95 (1):40-56.
Abstract: Objective In the environmental justice literature, uncertainty exists about the underlying causes of environmental risk disparities, especially as they relate to residential choices. To simplify, the two dominant views are racism/discrimination versus inevitable market dynamics. In this article, we move aside from these to examine the potential role of various residential choice constraints on environmental injustice and how they may be interrelated. Methods Using an agent-based simulation model, we examine the interaction of race-based constraints with other experimental conditions that can affect minorities’ residential choice sets. Results Simulation experiments demonstrate that if the minority holds relatively lower similarity preferences, the environmental quality gap declines when other conditions are held constant. However, racial parity in communities also decreases the environmental quality gap, as do slower population growth and larger geographies. Conclusion These results enable us to look at the problem of race-based environmental injustice more holistically, and begin to think about holistic solutions that may finally address what has heretofore been an intractable social problem.
DOI: 10.1111/ssqu.12033
Eckerd, Adam, Campbell, Heather E., and Yushim Kim. 2012. “Helping Those Like Us or Harming Those Unlike Us: Agent-Based Modeling to Illuminate Social Processes Leading to Environmental Injustice.” Environment & Planning B 29 (5):945-964.
Abstract: Several theories have been proposed to explain societal environmental injustices. Studies based on standard statistical methods and empirical data are often limited in testing some of these theories. This is especially true when some potential reasons (eg, racism) for unjust environmental outcomes are invidious, and even individual-level methods (eg, surveys) are unlikely to be effective in detecting them. We use agent-based modeling to explore the circumstances under which racially defined environmental injustice occurs in a society. We test three competing theories of an environmental disamenity’s location decision: cost factors alone, benign intention for the majority population, or malign intention for the minority population, along with three scenarios of residential similarity preferences. The simulation demonstrates that a purely neoclassical world—one in which firms and residents care only about costs—does not lead to environmental injustice. Nor does a similar world in which disamenity-producing firms seek to locate away from majority residents. Instead, two conditions led to societal environmental injustice: when disamenity-producing firms aim to locate near minorities or when residents prefer to live near other residents like themselves. In our model, a race-conscious society rather than just a collection of race-conscious firms produced significant levels of environmental injustice.
Campbell, Heather E. 2010. “A Comparative Framework for Analyzing Urban Environmental Policy.” Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis 12 (4):373-394.
Abstract: Worldwide, for the first time the majority of people live in cities. This population concentration presents environmental policy challenges. To improve urban environmental policy making, researchers, policy makers and administrators must consider the many, interrelated issues of urban environmental policy. This paper presents a new framework designed to help analysts and others consider many facets of urban environmental policy. The framework is unusual in focusing attention on the policy system within a structure that combines emphasis on the natural and built systems with the social and governmental systems. It is designed to be general enough to allow comparative and cross-national use.
DOI: 10.1080/13876988.2010.495506
Sobotta, Robin R., Heather E. Campbell & Beverly J. Owens. 2007. “Aviation Noise and Environmental Justice: The Barrio Barrier.” Journal of Regional Science 47 (1):125-154.
Abstract: Aviation noise is a harmful pollutant, which has yet to be studied in the environmental justice literature. This paper uses Tobit and logit multivariate regression analyses to analyze noise pollution exposure from a major commercial-service airport. It addresses the issue of whether people moved to the aviation noise-impacted areas or the noise encroached on the people, and controls for economic and political costs as well as the possibility of racial and ethnic prejudice. The results indicate that ethnicity is the primary cause of the disproportionate burden of aviation noise pollution borne by Hispanics in the area analyzed.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9787.2007.00503.x
Campbell, Heather E., Laura R. Peck & Michael K. Tschudi. (2010). “Justice for All? A Cross-Time Analysis of Toxics Release Inventory Facility Location.” Review of Policy Research 27 (1):1-25.
Abstract: This paper contributes to the environmental justice literature by addressing several outstanding issues in a single study. Using a cross-time data set that allows us to control for the prevalent “chicken-and-egg” or “which-came-first” problem, we analyze the relative importance of poverty and race/ethnicity in an analysis that includes economic costs, potential legal costs, and potential collective action. Because the most appropriate functional form is not obvious, we use several methods, including Tobit, Poisson, and ordinary least squares, on different forms of the dependent variable. In every case, controlling for the population present at the time of disamenity location and controlling the other factors mentioned, we find evidence of disproportionate collocation based on race/ethnicity, but not on poverty alone. We also find that the potential for collective action decreases the likelihood of receipt of the studied disamenities.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-1338.2009.00424.x
Campbell, Heather E., Yushim Kim and Adam Eckerd. 2015. "Rethinking Environmental Justice in Sustainable Cities: Insights from Agent-Based Modeling." Routledge.
Abstract: As the study of environmental policy and justice becomes increasingly significant in today’s global climate, standard statistical approaches to gathering data have become less helpful at generating new insights and possibilities. None of the conventional frameworks easily allow for the empirical modeling of the interactions of all the actors involved, or for the emergence of outcomes unintended by the actors. The existing frameworks account for the "what," but not for the "why." Heather E. Campbell, Yushim Kim, and Adam Eckerd bring an innovative perspective to environmental justice research. Their approach adjusts the narrower questions often asked in the study of environmental justice, expanding to broader investigations of how and why environmental inequities occur. Using agent-based modeling (ABM), they study the interactions and interdependencies among different agents such as firms, residents, and government institutions. Through simulation, the authors test underlying assumptions in environmental justice and discover ways to modify existing theories to better explain why environmental injustice occurs. Furthermore, they use ABM to generate empirically testable hypotheses... The pioneering research on environmental justice in this text will have effects on the field of environmental policy as a whole. For social science and policy researchers, this book explores how to employ new and experimental methods of inquiry on challenging social problems, and for the field of environmental justice, the authors demonstrate how ABM helps illuminate the complex social and policy interactions that lead to both environmental justice and injustice.
URL: http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415657440/
Campbell, Heather E. and Elizabeth A. Corley. 2012. Urban Environmental Policy Analysis. ME Sharpe.
Abstract: This timely book provides a wealth of information to help city managers, policy analysts, and government administrators identify relevant urban environmental problems and an array of potential solutions, analyze policy solutions and outcomes, and communicate with the public regarding urban environmental problems and policies.

Substantive Focus:
Environmental Policy PRIMARY
Urban Public Policy SECONDARY

Theoretical Focus:
Policy Analysis and Evaluation PRIMARY