Kwangho Jung

Seoul National University
Graduate School of Public Administration

1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu,
Graduate School of Public Administration, Seoul National University
South Korea
08826 |  Visit Personal Website

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My current research interests include public institutions and innovation ecosystem, policy management, and policy instruments(voucher and RFID technology).

Jung, K., Lee, S.H., and Workman, J.E. 2016. Exploring Neglected Aspects of Innovation Function: Public Motivation and Non-Pecuniary Values. Science, Technology, and Society, 21(3):435-464.
Abstract: The traditional innovation function, focusing on extrinsic motivations such as economic benefits and returns, has neglected the side of intrinsic values and public motivations for innovation function. Recent innovation examples in an era of mobile network and web-based information environment pursue open connected innovations such as open source movement and crowding source. Such open, collective and social innovations result from strong public motivation and trust network. Although previous studies argue the potential effects of intrinsic values on innovative attitude, research has not yet provided a comprehensive empirical evidence on how innovative attitude is associated with intrinsic and public motivations. Little empirical research remains for the impact of public motivations and intrinsic values on innovative attitudes. This study, relying on nationally represented survey (n = 3,188) in South Korea, explores an empirical link between public motivations and innovative attitudes to explore and allow new ideas. We found that public interest, empathy, altruism and job involvement facilitate innovative attitude to pursue and accept new ideas and suggestions. This implies that both intrinsic values (job enjoyment and satisfaction) and public motivations (public interests, empathy and altruism) are crucial factors to promote innovative attitudes. We also found strong non-linear relationships between satisfaction, trust and innovative attitude. We discuss implications for future innovation function of intrinsic and public motivations in terms of the process of social construction.
Jung, K. and Lee, S. 2017. The Impact of Economic Regulation on Retail Sector: Regulation of Business Hours of Large Discount Stores in South Korea. The Korean Journal of Policy Studies, 32(1): 99-124.
Abstract: Recently the large discount retailers (LDRs) including large discount chains (e.g., Emart, Homeplus, and Lotte Mart) and super supermarkets (SSMs) have been at the center of disputes in the retail industries in Korea. The 2012 Distribution Industry Development Act has allowed the head of a city or county to regulate the business hours between large mega retailers and small and family-run stores in the neighborhood. The regulation of the business hours of the large discount retailers may have heterogeneous effects on their sales depending on various contexts of the market situation. The reduction of the business hours assumes a significant negative effect on the amount of sales of LDRs. However, the degree of reduction may significantly differ from how the LDRs respond to the regulation. The reduction of sales of LDRs is natural if LDRs affected by the regulation do not make any effort to promote sales. On the other hand, if LDRs try to maintain their sales with various marketing strategies and resources, their sales may not decrease and even relatively increase compared to the size of the sales for LDRs that are not affected by the regulation. In addition, although the regulation of the business hours for LDRs can reduce operating hours, their sales may increase due to an increase of market demand in some growing places. For instance, the sales in LDRs located at the market place where new large housings and apartments have been growing may increase. The increasing demand derived from the new population growth can cancel out the decrease of the sales from the regulation of the business hours. Our findings, relying on using DID method before and after the regulation, show three different types of the impact of the regulation change on the sale of LDRs across five regions including decreasing, constant, and increasing patterns.
Jung, K., and Lee, S. 2015. A Systematic Review of RFID Applications and Diffusion: Key Areas and Public Policy Issues. Journal of Open Innovation, 1(1).
Abstract: RFID applicants called as e-ID, smart tag, and contactless smart card are being applied to numerous areas in our daily life, including tracking manufactured goods, currency, and patients to payments systems. To review these various applications of RFID is important to exploring not only ongoing e-governance issues such as digital identification, delivery process, and governance but also business oriented application areas like supply chain. Through a systematic review methodology from 111 previous studies about RFID technology for public sector, we found six key areas of RFID applications: defense and security, identification, environmental applications, transportation, healthcare and welfare, and agriculture-livestock. We also suggest that the diffusion and applications of RFID can involve unexpected disadvantages including technological deficiency, uncertain benefits, dubious transparency, uncomfortable privacy issue, and unequal distribution of digital power and literacy. Further research on RFID impact includes not only various theoretical issues of but also legal and managerial problems. Rigorous research is required to explore what factors are critical to adopt and implement new RFID applications in terms of technology governance and digital literacy. Massive data driven research is also expected to identify RFID performance in government agencies and various industry sectors.
DOI: DOI 10.1186/s40852-015-0010-z
Lee, S., and Jung, K. 2016. A Meta-Analysis of Determinants of RFID Adoption around the World: Orgnaization, Technology, and Public Policy. Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 10(1): 67-90.
Abstract: This paper aims to explore various factors associated with radio frequency identification (RFID) adoption with quantitative meta-analysis. More specifically, this paper attempts to measure key variables of RFID adoption derived from Rogers’ innovation theory and further examines how state intervention influences the process of RFID adoption. First, this paper compares, relying on a meta-analysis, various mean effect sizes among technological, organizational and environmental factors (i.e. government-driven policies) that Rogers suggested in his innovation model. In mean effect size analysis, this paper finds that the technological factor is the most powerful factor that affects the RFID adoption. The technological factor is statistically significant across all regions, including North America, Europe and Asia. The organizational factor is significant only in developing countries like Southeast Asian countries and East Asian countries. Environmental factors like government intervention for facilitating RFID adoption are strong enough only in Southeast Asia and Europe. This paper finds that government’s supportive policy is more effective in Europe but not in America, while external pressure is still more effective in Southeast Asia. These results implicate that developmentalism or government-driven policy can be effective not only in developing countries but also in the case of developed countries. In addition, this paper conducts a seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) analysis based on Fisher’s standardized score. In SUR analysis, this paper finds that the correlations between RFID adoption intention and three innovation factors vary across industrial areas. More specifically, the manufacturing area shows negative moderating effect on all three equations where correlations between Rogers’ innovation factors and RFID adoption intention are meta-dependent variables. Also, RFID adoption is accelerated when the size of the firm is large or the location of the firm is in Southeast Asia. This result implicates that the aspect of technology adoption can be changed by region and type of industry.
DOI: 10.1108/APJIE-12-2016-010
Lee, S.H., Workman, J., & Jung, K. 2016. Perception of Time, Creative Attitudes, and Adoption of Innovations: A Cross-Cultural Study from Chinese and U.S. College Students. Sustainability, 8(11):1193
Abstract: This study explores how earlier (vs. later) adopters of innovation differ in time perception and creative attitudes, comparing Chinese and US college students. Research on the perception of time and creative attitudes is useful to understand how sustainability and creative collaboration might work together. Various relationships exist between different levels of innovation adoption groups and creative attitudes or perceptions of time. We found that earlier adopters scored higher on economic time and future time orientation. This may indicate that earlier adopters are sensitive about their planned schedule. Also, earlier adopters with a future time orientation are forward-thinking and anticipate the introduction of new styles, items, or events in the future. We also find that Chinese (vs. US) participants scored higher on creative capacity and creative collaboration but did not differ in general creative attitudes or creative risk-taking. For all participants from these two countries, earlier adopters (vs. later) scored higher on all aspects of creative attitudes. This study suggests academic and practical implications regarding sustainability issues. From an academic perspective, this study adds a new perspective to the literature about the relationships among time of adoption, time perception, creative attitudes, and cultural values, and is especially useful for how these four variables influence sustainability. From a practitioner perspective, this study provides information of how consumer values and attitudes in a developing economy (China) and a developed economy(US) might facilitate open innovation and induce sustainability.
Jung, Kwangho, Jong-Hwan Eun, and Seung-Hee Lee. 2017. Exploring Competing Perspectives on Government-driven Entrepreneurial Ecosystems: Lessons from Centres for Creative Economy and Innovation(CCEI) of South Korea. European Planning Studies, 25(5):827-847.
Abstract: Recent research suggests competing aspects of how to promote an entrepreneurial ecosystem for sustainable economic growth from a linear entrepreneurial ecosystem to non-linear ones involving diverse stakeholders beyond the dichotomy between state and market. Competing views and interests embedded in these multiple stakeholders can contribute to understanding how an entrepreneurial ecosystem can emerge, flourish and vanish. However, little systematic research has explored what aspects multiple stakeholders have for a new rising entrepreneurial ecosystem. This paper, relying on Q-methodology, explores different perspectives of stakeholders surrounding the Centres for a Creative Economy and Innovation (CCEIs) in South Korea. Application of Q-methodology with a qualitative and statistical approach allows us to clarify various competing stakeholder perspectives on entrepreneurial ecosystems embodied by the 17 government driven CCEIs. We found six different views on how to evaluate the role and function of the CCEIs deeply connected with strong state intervention and big conglomerate companies (BCCs): (1) the BCC-led CCEI ecosystem, (2) the CCEI own ecosystem, (3) a strong critic of the state-led CCEI ecosystem, (4) a negative viewpoint on the politics-led CCEI ecosystem, (5) the state-led CCEI ecosystem and (6) a strong critic of the current Korean venture capital system.
DOI: 10.1080/09654313.2017.1282083
Jung, Kwangho, M. Jae. Moon and Sungdeuk Hahm. 2007. Do Age, Gender, and Sector Affect Job Satisfaction? Results From the Korean Labor and Income Panel Data, Review of Public Personnel Administration, 27(2):125-146.
Jung, Kwangho, M. Jae Moon and SungDeuk Hahm. 2008. Exploring the Linkage Ministerial Leadership and Performance in Korea. Administration and Society, 40(7):667-690.
Jung, Kwangho, and Moon, M. Jae. 2007. The Double Edged Sword of Public Resource Dependence: Impacts on Autonomy and Legitimacy in Cultural Nonprofit Organizations. Policy Studies Journal, 35(2):206-226
Hahm, S.G., Jung, K., and D. Kim. 2013. Peaceful power transfers or successions and democratic consolidation in South Korea. Korean Social Science Journal, 40(1): 53-64.
Hahm, S.D., Jung, K., & Moon, M.J. 2013. Shaping Public Corporation Leadership in a Turbulent Environment. Public Administration Review, 73(1): 178-187.
Hahm, S. D., Jung, K., & Lee, S. 2013. Exploring the Determinants of the Entry and Exit of Ministers in Korea: 1980–2008. Governance, 26(4): 657–675.
Roh, C.Y., M.J. Moon, and Jung, K. 2013. Efficiency Disparities among Community Hospitals in Tennessee: Do Size, Location, Ownership, and Network Matter? Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Undeserved, 24(4):1816-1833
Hahm, S. D., Jung, K., & Lee, S. 2014. An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of the Length of Ministerial Tenure in Korea, 1980-2008.International Public Management Journal. 17(2):202-223.

Substantive Focus:
Environmental Policy
Governance PRIMARY
Science and Technology Policy
Comparative Public Policy SECONDARY
Urban Public Policy

Theoretical Focus:
Policy Process Theory
Agenda-Setting, Adoption, and Implementation SECONDARY
Policy Analysis and Evaluation PRIMARY