Jonathan L. Gifford

George Mason University
Schar School of Policy and Government

3351 Fairfax Drive
MS 3B1
Arlington, VA
USA
22201
jgifford@gmu.edu |  Visit Personal Website


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Jonathan L. Gifford is the director of the Center for Transportation Public-Private Partnership Policy (p3policy.gmu.edu) in George Mason University's School of Public Policy. His primary area of expertise is transportation and public policy, with a particular focus on transportation planning and finance. He has published numerous articles on transportation and infrastructure topics. His recent research investigates transportation finance and the role of public-private partnerships, and behavioral considerations in transportation planning.

Citation:
Gifford, Jonathan L. 2012. “Transportation Finance.” Robert D. Ebel and John E. Petersen, eds. The Oxford Handbook of State and Local Government Finance (pp. 594-623). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Abstract: This chapter surveys revenues and expenditures for transportation mode-by-mode. At the finance level, each mode tells its own story, fundamentally because the infrastructure investment and day-to-day operations of each transportation serve different types of traffic and reflect different roles and responsibility for the public and private sectors. A fundamental issue is the extent to which each mode supports itself by relying on user fees, and the extent to which it depends on government to raise and distribute the funding needed to sustain operations. The chapter concludes with a look forward into an uncertain future of how these transportation needs are to be financed in the years to come.
Citation:
Gifford, Jonathan L. 2010. “ICT and Road Transportation Safety in the United States: A Case of ‘American Exceptionalism.’” IATSS Research (Elsevier, International Association of Traffic and Safety Sciences), 34 (1): 1-8. July.
Abstract: This paper examines American attitudes about the role and structure of government and how those attitudes affect the safety potential of ICT-based road safety technologies. It examines these attitudes in the context of 3 current intelligent transportation systems (ITS) initiatives: IntelliDriveSM, active traffic management (ATM), and automated enforcement. It concludes that cultural attitudes have a strong influence on the acceptance of such systems, and provides suggestions for how such systems might be implemented successfully.
DOI: 10.1016/j.iatssr.2010.06.006
Citation:
Gifford, Jonathan L. 2010. “State Infrastructure Banks: A Virginia Perspective.” GMU School of Public Policy Research Paper No. 2010-32. November.
Abstract: This report provides a brief overview of state infrastructure banks (SIBs) from the perspective of the Commonwealth of Virginia. It includes three simplified illustrations of how a SIB might use its initial capitalization and/or ongoing revenue. The report also discusses the federal TIFIA program, which is similar in some respects to state-level programs like SIBs. The report then discusses Virginia?s existing SIB, which was authorized in 1996 with the signing of a Cooperative Agreement between the FHWA and VDOT. Virginia?s SIB was established in 1997 and has supported two projects, the Pocahontas Parkway in Richmond and the I-95/395 HOT lanes in northern Virginia. The current Virginia SIB has relatively limited scope and resources. A revised or newly chartered Virginia SIB might be authorized to use some of the tools and mechanisms used in other states. The next section examines case studies from three states to illustrate how other states have used SIBs. A subsequent section discusses the risks associated with SIBs, and a final section discusses how a new or restructured Virginia SIB could supplement Virginia?s transportation financial outlook.
URL: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1714466
Citation:
Gifford, Jonathan L. 2011. “Policy Options for Secondary Road Construction and Management in the Commonwealth of Virginia.” GMU School of Public Policy Research Paper No. 2011-17. June.
Abstract: This report reviews the Commonwealth of Virginia?s secondary road policy in order to identify options for revising policy to improve the condition and operation of the secondary system in light of continuing reductions in secondary construction and maintenance budgets.
URL: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1865957

Substantive Focus:
Economic Policy SECONDARY
Governance PRIMARY
Science and Technology Policy
Urban Public Policy

Theoretical Focus:
Policy History SECONDARY
Policy Process Theory
Agenda-Setting, Adoption, and Implementation
Policy Analysis and Evaluation PRIMARY

Keywords

TRANSPORTATION PUBLIC POLICY LAND USE INFRASTRUCTURE TRANSPORTATION FINANCE PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS PPPS P3S