William Kyle Ingle

University of Louisvile
Educational Leadership, Evaluation, & Organizational Development

1905 South 1st Street
Louisville, KY
william.ingle@louisville.edu |  Visit Personal Website

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Research interests include: human resource functions in education, politics of education, and cost analyses of educational programs.

Ingle, W.K., Willis, C.W., & Fritz, J. (2015). Collective bargaining agreement provisions in the wake of Ohio Teacher Evaluation System legislation. Education Policy, 29 (1), 18-50.
Abstract: Guided by Honig and Hatch’s conceptualization of bridging and buffering, we analyzed the first teacher collective bargaining agreements negotiated after the enactment of the Ohio Teacher Evaluation System to understand how state law has shaped provisions for teacher evaluation, compensation, reductions in force (RIF), transfers, and contract renewal. We found surprising variation in provisions across districts. Most notable was how districts defined comparable evaluations in making RIF decisions. Bridging districts provided the greatest protections for the most accomplished teachers, regardless of seniority. In contrast, buffering districts have RIF provisions based on seniority.
URL: http://epx.sagepub.com/content/29/1/18.short
Ingle, W.K., Bowers, A.J., & Davis, T. (2014). Which school districts qualified for federal school facility funding under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009? Evidence from Ohio. Journal of Education Finance, 40, (1), 17-37.
Abstract: "e American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) allocated $11 billion per year for 2009 and 2010 for qualified school construction bonds (QSCBs) for America’s schools. From a historical perspective, this program is a broad transformation of the federal role in school facility funding. "is study examined factors associated with federal allocations to school districts in Ohio, asking the following questions: What demographic and finance characteristics of Ohio school districts are associated with an increased likelihood of qualifying for a QSCB? Did school districts with greater need qualify? We found that Ohio districts that had previously deferred participation in the state’s capital funding program (typically unable to raise the local share) were strongly associated with an increased likelihood of QSCB qualification (p < .001), thus providing an opportunity for these districts to overcome local voter reticence of additional taxes and address school construction and renovation needs with the availability of lower-interest-rate borrowing over a shorter period of time. Higher poverty rates were associated with an increased likelihood of receiving QSCB awards, but marginally so (p < .10). Our findings suggest that QSCB qualification may have helped to address the equity concerns raised in the prior literature.
Ingle, W. K., Johnson, P. A., Givens, M. & Rampelt, J. (2013). Campaign expenditures in school levy campaigns and their relationship to voter approval: Evidence from Ohio, 2007-2010. Leadership & Policy in Schools, 12(1), 1-36.
Abstract: Using logistic regression, this study sought to understand the relationship between district characteristics, district finances, levy characteristics, and campaign expenditures with new operating levy outcomes. We found that employee benefits as a percentage of the district’s budget were negatively associated with levy outcomes, while salaries were positively associated with levy outcomes, suggesting that voters may be more sensitive to retirement and healthcare benefits than salaries when voting. While campaign spending was related to levy success, types of expenditures were largely insignificant. School district personnel must be cognizant of the local conditions in crafting campaigns and recruiting community stakeholders.
Ingle, W. K., & Petroff, R. A. (2013) Public entrepreneurs and the adoption of broad-based merit aid beyond the Southeastern United States. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 21 (58). Available at http://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/1252
Abstract: The concentration of broad-based merit aid adoption in the southeastern United States has been well noted in the literature. However, there are states that have adopted broad-based merit aid programs outside of the Southeast. Guided by multiple theoretical frameworks, including innovation diffusion theory (e.g., Gray, 1973, 1994; Rogers, 2003), Roberts and King’s (1991) typology of public entrepreneurs, and Anderson’s (2003) stages of the policymaking process, this qualitative study sought to answer the following questions. First, in the absence of regional diffusion pressures, what internal determinants are reported as accounting for the diffusion of broad-based merit aid programs outside of the Southeastern US? What types of public entrepreneurs were identified as playing key roles in establishing merit aid in states outside the southeastern US? During which stages of the policymaking process were they active? We found that merit aid was a means of addressing an array of public problems, including low college going rates at in-state public colleges and universities, and weak K-12 accountability. Consistent factors reported as facilitating merit aid creation included a strong, vocal public advocate (governors and a university system president) and a desire to strengthen state economies and diversify
URL: http://epaa.asu.edu/ojs/article/view/1252
Ingle, W. K., P. A. Johnson, R. A. Petroff. 2012. “Hired guns” and “legitimate voices”: The politics and participants of levy campaigns in five Ohio school districts. Educational Administration Quarterly 0013161X12448251, first published on June 6, 2012 as doi:10.1177/0013161X12448251
Abstract: Background: In Ohio, levy campaigns are a burdensome task for district administrators and stakeholders alike. To date, there is little research on the districts’ role in crafting school budget referenda campaigns. Purpose: This study asked three research questions: How did the macropolitical contexts shape stakeholders’ decision making in terms of campaign strategizing and participation? How did the micropolitical contexts shape stakeholder decision making in terms of campaign strategizing and participation? How did successful districts differ in political strategies from districts that were not successful? Research Design: Qualitative case studies. Data Collection: Twenty-three informants from five Ohio school districts with levies on the November 2008 ballot. Using a snowball sampling technique, initial informants (i.e., superintendent, treasurer) were asked to identify additional stakeholders who participated in the campaigns. Data Analysis: Coding was initially guided by multiple theoretical frameworks, including macro/micropolitics, Johnson’s 21 campaign strategies and Anderson’s framework of “authentic” participation. After coding, an iterative team memo-writing process was used. Findings: This study offers important insight into the complexities of the environments and strategies used in levy campaigns. Four macropolitical themes were identified—state campaign policies, state education finance policy, the high-profile nature of the Presidential election, and the state of the economy. Despite a small sample, districts varied greatly in strategies used and community involvement. Districts that heavily engaged community members and created a sense of urgency yielded greater success at the polls than “central office campaigns.” Adequate message training for campaign participants was also integral to success.
URL: http://URL: http://eaq.sagepub.com/content/early/2012/06/04/0013161X12448251.full.pdf+html
DOI: 10.1177/0013161X12448251

Substantive Focus:
Education Policy PRIMARY

Theoretical Focus:
Policy Process Theory
Agenda-Setting, Adoption, and Implementation SECONDARY
Policy Analysis and Evaluation PRIMARY