Peter H. Sand

University of Munich
Institute of International Law

Elisabeth-Str. 38
Munich, Bavaria
D-80796 |  Visit Personal Website

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Transnational environmental law and policy -- with a current focus on the interface of power politics, human rights and environment conservation in the Indian Ocean region (The Chagos Archipelago cases, 2013 Global Community Yearbook of International Law and Jurisprudence 125-149). -- Ongoing research projects include: history and origin of international environmental law (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015); international protection of endangered species (Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Oxford University Press, online; 2017 Asia Pacific Journal of Environmental Law 20:1); Japan's 'scientific whaling' (2008 Finnish Yearbook of International Law 19:93-124); draft international covenant on environment and development (5th edn. 2016, International Council of Environmental Law); international public trusteeship (in Kotzé & Marauhn eds., Transboundary Governance of Biodiversity 2014, 34-64); Gulf War reparations and the UN Compensation Commission: Environmental Liability (ed. with Cymie R. Payne, Oxford University Press 2011; 2011 Japanese Yearbook of International Law 54, 151-189); the evolution of transnational law (2012 Transnational Environmental Law 1:1,183-198); the practice of shared responsibility for transboundary air pollution (SHARES, University of Amsterdam 2016); protection of the atmosphere in international law (2017 European, Comparative and International Environmental law 26:3). -- Associate editor of International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics (Kluwer Academic Publishers); member of the editorial boards of the Yearbook of International Environmental Law, and Journal of Environment and Development; elected member of the World Commission on Environmental Law, International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

Sand, Peter H. 2018. "Internationale Umweltabkommen". In Grundzüge des Umweltrechts, eds. Eckard Rehbinder et al. 5th edition, Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag, chapter 16.
Abstract: Survey of international environmental treaty law, including all bilateral transboundary agreements between Germany and neighbouring countries; European regional agreements; and global environmental treaties (atmosphere and climate, oceans and marine resources, watercourses, protected natural areas and biological resources, industrial pollution hazards, and environment protection in armed conflicts). Analysis of current trends in international environmental law-making (dynamization, compliance controls, fragmentation).
Sand, Peter H. 2011. "Information Disclosure". Chapter 13 in The Reality of Precaution: Comparing Risk Regulation in the United States and Europe, eds. Jonathan B. Wiener et al. Washington/DC: Resources for the Future Press, p. 323-360.
Abstract: This chapter describes innovative initiatives in the United States and Europe to establish an environmental "right-to-know" for civil society, by mandatory disclosure both of government-held information and of industry-held risk data. These disclosure strategies to facilitate precautionary action have spread across the Atlantic and triggered a "third wave" of environmental regulation, replacing or supplementing comman-and-control and market-based instruments. However, the chapter also highlights continuing transparency deficits (sometimes resulting in "manufactured uncertainty", prompted by economic interests or by precaution against countervailing risks such as terrorism) with regard to risk-sensitive information of common concern.
Sand, Peter H. 2017. "International Protection of Endangered Species in the Face of Wildlife Trade: Whither Conservation Diplomacy?". Asia Pacific Journal of Environmental Law 20:1, 5-27.
Abstract: This article, based on a lecture at the University of Sydney in November 2016, assesses the evolution and effectiveness of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), and its ennforcement through trade sanctions. The conclusions caution against the CITES regime's potential loss of credibility and legitimacy in the wake of Japan's continuing 'scientific' whaling in the North Pacific.
Sand, Peter H. 2011. Atoll Diego Garcia: Naturschutz zwischen Menschenrecht und Machtpolitik. Munich: Herbert Utz Verlag. (English and French summaries on pp. 133-136)
Abstract: This case study in 'eco-imperialism' analyses the exemplary fate of an Indian ocean island (Diego Garcia in the Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory) from three perspectives: - a colonial regime without regard for basic human rights; - global power politcs under dubious 'green' pretences; - and their irreparable impacts on the natural environment of the archipelago.

Substantive Focus:
Law and Policy PRIMARY
Environmental Policy SECONDARY
Defense and Security
International Relations
Comparative Public Policy

Theoretical Focus:
Policy History
Agenda-Setting, Adoption, and Implementation PRIMARY
Policy Analysis and Evaluation SECONDARY