Peter H. Sand

University of Munich
Institute of International Law

Elisabeth-Str. 38
Munich, Bavaria
D-80796 |  Visit Personal Website

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Transnational environmental law and policy -- with a current focus on the interface of power politics, human rights and environment conservation in the Indian Ocean region (The Chagos Archipelago cases, 2013 Global Community Yearbook of International Law and Jurisprudence 125-149). -- Ongoing research projects include: history and origins of international environmental law (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015); international protection of endangered species (Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Oxford University Press, online); Japan's 'scientific whaling' (2008 Finnish Yearbook of International Law 19:93-124); draft international covenant on environment and development (5th edn. 2016, International Council of Environmental Law); international public trusteeship (in Kotzé & Marauhn eds., Transboundary Governance of Biodiversity 2014, 34-64); Gulf War reparations and the UN Compensation Commission: Environmental Liability (ed. with Cymie R. Payne, Oxford University Press 2011; Japanese Yearbook of International Law 54, 2011, 151-189); the evolution of transnational law (2012 Transnational Environmental Law 1:1,183-198); the practice of shared responsibility for transboundary air pollution (SHARES, University of Amsterdam 2016); protection of the atmosphere in international law (with Jonathan B. Wiener, Goettingen Journal of International Law 7:2, 2016). -- Associate editor of International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics (Kluwer Academic Publishers); member of the editorial boards of Yearbook of International Environmental Law, Journal of Environment and Development, and Review of European Community and International Environmental Law; elected member of the International Council of Environmental Law, and the World Commission on Environmental Law, International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

Sand, Peter H. 2013. "Enforcing CITES: The Rise and Fall of Trade Sanctions". Review of European, Comparative and International Environmental Law 22:3, 251-263.
Abstract: The 1973 Washington Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) has since 1985 developed a unique scheme of multilateral sanctions for noncompliance with the treaty, by way of trade embargoes. This article reviews the evolution of the scheme, which has been enforced against 43 States to date; its practical effectiveness and legality in light of general rules of international law; and the risks to its legitimacy and credibility due to selective non-application against powerful member states.
Sand, Peter H. 2013, The Rise of Public Trusteeship in in International Environmental Law. GlobalTrust Working Paper Series 03/2013. Tel Aviv University: Buchmann Faculty of Law. (ISSN 2309-7248)
Abstract: This essay explains the origins of the "public trust doctrine" in the context of environmental law, summarizes the contributions of five scholars (Sax, Train, Kiss, de Klemm and Brown Weiss) to the development of the doctrine and its contemporary applications in treaties and international jurisprudence, and explores the prospects of the concept in international legal theory and practice.
Burhenne, Wolfgang E., and Peter H. Sand 2012. "Internationale Umweltvereinbarungen". In Grundzüge des Umweltrechts, eds. Klaus Hansmann and Dieter Sellner. 4th edition, Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag, pp. 1157-1208.
Abstract: Survey of international/transnational environmental law, including all bilateral transboundary agreements between Germany and neighbouring countries; European regional agreements; and global environmental treaty law (atmosphere and climate, oceans and marine resources, watercourses, protected natural areas and biological resources, industrial pollution hazards, and environment protection in armed conflicts). Analysis of current trends in international environmental law-making (dynamization, compliance controls, fragmentation).
Sand, Peter H. 2010. "Information Disclosure." In The Reality of Precaution: Comparing Risk Regulation in the US and Europe, eds. Jonathan B. Wiener et al. Washington/DC: Resources for the Future Press, p. 323-360.
Sand, Peter H. 2011. Atoll Diego Garcia: Naturschutz zwischen Menschenrecht und Machtpolitik. Munich: Herbert Utz Verlag. (English and French summaries on pp. 133-136)
Abstract: This case study in 'eco-imperialism' analyses the exemplary fate of an Indian ocean island (Diego Garcia in the Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory) from three perspectives: - a colonial regime without regard for basic human rights; - global power politcs under dubious 'green' pretences; - and their irreparable impacts on the natural environment of the archipelago.

Substantive Focus:
Law and Policy PRIMARY
Environmental Policy SECONDARY
Defense and Security
International Relations
Comparative Public Policy

Theoretical Focus:
Policy History
Agenda-Setting, Adoption, and Implementation PRIMARY
Policy Analysis and Evaluation SECONDARY