Julian L. Garritzmann

University of Konstanz
Politics and Public Administration

University of Konstanz
Lehrstuhl für Politikwissenschaft, D79

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My research fields are comparative political economy and comparative politics. I'm an expert in social investment policies and welfare state research. I'm particularly interested in the interaction of citizens' preferences (public opinion), parties' positions, party competition, and the policy-making process in the areas of education and social policies.

Garritzmann, Julian L. (2016) The Political Economy of Higher Education Finance. The Politics of Tuition Fees and Subsidies in OECD Countries, 1945-2015. Palgrave Macmillan.
Abstract: This book analyzes the political economy of higher education finance across a range of OECD countries, exploring why some students pay extortionate tuition fees whilst for others their education is free. What are the redistributional consequences of these different tuition-subsidy systems? Analysing the variety of existing systems, Garritzmann shows that across the advanced democracies “Four Worlds of Student Finance” exist. Historically, however, all countries’ higher education systems looked very much alike in the 1940s. The book develops a theoretical model, the Time-Sensitive Partisan Theory, to explain why countries have evolved from a similar historical starting point to today’s very distinct Four Worlds. The empirical analyses combine a wide variety of qualitative and quantitative evidence, studying higher education policies in all advanced democracies from 1945-2015.
URL: http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-319-29913-6
Garritzmann, Julian L. 2013. "Who Owns Education? Cleavage Structures in the Partisan Competition over Educational Expansion." West European Politics 36 (3):521-546.
Abstract: The literature on the partisan foundations of education policies leads to ambiguous expectations with regard to the predominant cleavage structures in party competition on this topic. There is disagreement as to whether leftist or rightist parties are responsible for increasing spending on education, while others claim that educational expansion has become a consensual topic. This paper analyses the cleavage structure of party competition over the topic of educational expansion, relying on data from the Comparative Manifesto Project. It identifies political parties as ‘issue-owners’ and ‘issue-ignorers’, respectively, and finds considerable variation with regard to cleavage structures of party competition between countries and across time. One tentative conclusion from the analysis is that policy legacies play an important role in shaping cleavage structures.
URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01402382.2012.753703#tabModule
Garritzmann, Julian L. 2015. "Attitudes Towards Student Support: How Positive Feedback-Effects Prevent Change in the Four Worlds of Student Finance." Journal of European Social Policy 25 (2):139-158.
Abstract: This article provides a detailed analysis of individual preferences towards public financial aid to students from low-income families. Who favours/opposes such aid? What are the determinants of the respective preferences? I argue that three sets of factors jointly shape these preferences: materialistic self-interests, political attitudes, and the status quo of the higher education subsidy systems by generating positive feedback-effects. Results of multilevel ordered logit models utilizing the International Social Survey Program (ISSP) data for up to 22 countries over two decades indicate that self-interest matters: students strongly favour subsidies as do their parents, while those paying for the spending and those not expecting to benefit oppose such aid. Moreover, political attitudes are important: Supporters of redistribution and of increased public education spending in general, as well as leftwing voters, are much more likely to support students. On the macro-level, the findings suggest that positive feedback-effects exist: in countries with generous subsidy systems, public support for subsidies is higher. This article is the first to systematically analyse preferences towards higher education subsidies across countries and time and demonstrates how positive feedback-effects increasingly lock-in countries’ tuition-subsidy paths, making the systems resistant to (radical) change. As such, it speaks to the literature on the political economy of skill formation, the welfare state, public opinion and the public opinion–policy link.
DOI: 10.1177/0958928715573478
Garritzmann, Julian L. and Kilian Seng. 2015. "Party Politics and Education Spending. Challenging Some Common Wisdom." Journal of European Public Policy. Online First.
Abstract: Much literature has analysed parties’ influence on public education spending. We challenge this literature on theoretical, methodological and empirical grounds. It is standard to regress expenditure on cabinet seat-share weighted party family dummies in time-series cross-section regressions using ‘country-year’ data. But using ‘country-year’ data artificially inflates the number of cases and leads to biased estimates, as governments usually do not change annually. Second, using party families as proxies for party preferences assumes that parties within families hold similar positions while they differ across families. But this is empirically often not the case. Finally, a historical institutionalist perspective suggests that we should not expect party effects anymore in the first place. Empirically, we propose a new design, using direct measures of party preferences in analyses on government-term level. We find that the partisan composition of government did not have any significant effects on education spending from 1995 to 2010 in 21 democracies.
DOI: 10.1080/13501763.2015.1048703
Garritzmann, Julian L. 2014. Review of Carsten Jensen's "The Right and the Welfare State" (Oxford University Press). CritCom. A Forum for Research and Commentary on Europe.
URL: http://councilforeuropeanstudies.org/critcom/the-right-and-the-welfare-state/

Substantive Focus:
Education Policy PRIMARY
Social Policy
Comparative Public Policy SECONDARY

Theoretical Focus:
Policy Analysis and Evaluation PRIMARY
Public Opinion SECONDARY