Richard Nigel Lyon Andrews

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Public Policy

UNC Department of Public Policy
CB# 3435, Abernethy Hall
Chapel Hill, NC
27599-3435
pete_andrews@unc.edu |  Visit Personal Website


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- History of U.S. environmental policy - Particularly conceptual innovations in environmental policy - Energy behavior in business organizations - Comparative study of environmental policy instruments and their impact on behavioral barriers and opportunities affecting environmental sustainability

Citation:
Andrews, R. N. L. 2013. "State Environmental Policy Innovations: North Carolina’s Clean Smokestacks Act." Environmental Law, 43(4): 881-940.
Abstract: An important and longstanding limitation of the federal Clean Air Act was its failure to assure cleanup of the hundreds of old coal-fired electric power plants that were built prior to the 1970s, most of which were “grandfathered” and thus continued to operate. In 2002, North Carolina enacted an unusually innovative state-level solution to this problem: a permanent, year-round cap on overall NOX and SO2 emissions from each of its two major utilities, stringent enough to require cleanup or retirement of all forty-five of their coal-fired units. Using the leverage of this law, North Carolina also brought legal actions against its principal upwind source (TVA) and the EPA, leading to a similar cleanup commitment by TVA and a federal judicial decision to assure protection of downwind states under EPA’s Clean Air Interstate Rule. This article documents the history of how the Clean Smokestacks Act was developed and enacted, its implementation and consequences, and the lessons it offers for other environmental law and policy initiatives. In contrast to the gridlocked adversarial politics of the federal Congress in recent years, it provides an example of a case, in which stakeholders with different interests were able to negotiate a compromise solution that provided benefits to each participant, as well as major benefits to the public. It also represents a reversal of the more familiar pattern of environmental federalism; in this case, a state initiative capped emissions within its own borders more stringently than federal requirements, and leveraged this commitment with legal pressures to achieve similar results from out-of-state upwind sources and the federal government.
URL: https://law.lclark.edu/live/files/16063-43-4andrews
Citation:
Andrews, R. N. L., and E. Johnson. (2016, in press). "Energy Use, Behavioral Change, and Organizations: Reviewing Recent Findings and Proposing a Future Research Agenda." Energy Research and Social Science.
Abstract: A sizable literature has begun to emerge on individual energy behavior, but research on energy behavior in business organizations has been far more limited, despite businesses’ responsibility for a far larger fraction of energy use, global warming and other impacts. This article reviews studies of energy behavior in businesses, and suggests areas for additional social science research. We conducted a systematic review of bibliographies on energy and behavior, papers presented at recent conferences on behavior and energy, reference lists of publications thus identified, and keyword searches on energy behavior and business and related topics. From these sources, we identified research articles addressing energy behavior in businesses and categorized them by qualitative content analysis into three levels of analysis: individuals within organizations, organizations, and institutional forces influencing organizations’ behavior. Using this method, we found several well developed research areas but also significant gaps on other important topics. Under-developed topics include factors influencing businesses’ adoption of renewable energy; sector-specific studies on barriers to energy innovation; integrated studies of influences on businesses’ energy behavior at the individual, organizational and institutional levels; and cross-cultural comparisons. Such studies offer opportunities both for scholarly contributions and for improving business decision-making and public policy.
Citation:
Andrews, R. N. L. 2016. "The Environmental Protection Agency." Environmental Policy in the Twenty-first Century, 9th edition, edited by Norman Vig and Michael Kraft. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press, pp. 215-238.
Citation:
Andrews, R. N. L. 2014. "Environmental Policy Tools (1700s-present)." The CQ Guide to U.S. Environmental Policy, edited by Edmund Russell and Sally K. Fairfax. Washington, DC: CQ Press, pp. 141-157.
Citation:
Andrews, R. N. L. 2012. "A History of Environmental Leadership." Environmental Leadership Reference Handbook, vol. 1, edited by Deborah Gallagher. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Citation:
Andrews, R. N. L. 2011. "The EPA at 40: An Historical Perspective." Duke Environmental Law and Policy Forum 21: 223-258.
Citation:
Carley, Sanya, and R.N.L. Andrews. 2012. "Creating a Sustainable U.S. Electricity Sector: The Question of Scale." Policy Sciences, 45: 97-121.
Citation:
Andrews, R. N. L. 2012. "Environmental Politics and Policy in Historical Perspective." Handbook of U.S. Environmental Policy, edited by Michael E. Kraft and Sheldon Kamieniecki. NY: Oxford University Press.
Citation:
Andrews, R. N. L, A. Hutson, and D. Edwards Jr. 2006. "Environmental Management Under Pressure: How Do Mandates Affect Performance?" Leveraging the Private Sector: Management-Based Strategies for Improving Environmental Performance, eds. Cary Coglianese and Jennifer Nash. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future Press, pp. 111-136.
Citation:
Andrews, R. N. L. 1998. "Environmental Regulation and Business Self-Regulation." Policy Sciences, 31(3): 177-97.
Citation:
Andrews, R. N. L. 2006. Managing the Environment, Managing Ourselves: A History of American Environmental Policy (2nd edition). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. pp. 515.

Substantive Focus:
Law and Policy
Energy and Natural Resource Policy SECONDARY
Environmental Policy PRIMARY
Comparative Public Policy

Theoretical Focus:
Policy History PRIMARY
Agenda-Setting, Adoption, and Implementation SECONDARY

Keywords

ENVIRONMENTAL ENERGY COMPARATIVE BUSINESS STATE INSTRUMENTS POLICY TOOLS HISTORY INFORMATION DISCLOSURE CLIMATE RENEWABLE