Holona LeAnne Ochs

Lehigh University
Political Science

9 West Packer Avenue
Bethlehem, PA
hlo209@lehigh.edu |  Visit Personal Website

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My research focuses on credible sources of authority that are trustworthy and trust enhancing. My most recent book, "Privatizing the Polity" explores recent shifts in influence and sector boundaries between the public, private, and nonprofit sectors. The objective is to link discrete literatures on poverty, governance, and privatization to understand the systemic patterns and practices that are more likely to alleviate poverty. I have also co-authored two books on nonstandard compensation systems, Gratuity: A Contextual Understanding of Tipping Norms from the Perspective of Tipped Employees, and Getting a Cut: A Contextual Understanding of Commission Systems, and I have published research on justice and governance in journals including Justice Research and Policy, Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice, Journal of Public Affairs Education, Policy Studies Journal, Social Science Quarterly, American Politics Research, and Public Personnel Management. At present, I am in the process of collecting data for a research project assessing the politics of mental health policy as well as analyzing data on deadly encounters with the police.

Ochs, Holona LeAnne. 2015. Privatizing the Polity. Albany: SUNY Press.
Abstract: The primary purpose of this book is to link the discrete literatures on poverty, governance, and privatization to understand the systemic patterns and practices that are more likely to alleviate poverty. A central goal of “Privatizing the Polity” is to describe the details of welfare policy changes over time and analyze what welfare reforms mean for people living in poverty by examining opportunities to move out of poverty. This study utilizes data across US states over 18 years and demonstrates that the net effects of welfare reforms that increasingly subsidize the private sector and compel work are not producing broad-based opportunities to move out of poverty. In fact, the more people living in poverty work, the more intense poverty is in the aggregate over time, and programs such as Individual Development Accounts (IDAs) and the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) have not significantly aided in the transition out of poverty. This book outlines the extent of variation within the system of poverty governance across states so that the best evidence from various levels of analysis may be compiled to assess how different policy choices, implementation structures, and enactment practices may affect change in impoverishment, and provides a framework for analyzing the increasingly privatized practice of poverty governance.
URL: http://www.sunypress.edu/p-6096-privatizing-the-polity.aspx
Ronald C. Clark Jr., Holona LeAnne Ochs, and Michael Frazier. 2013. "Representative Bureaucracy: The Politics of Access to Policy-Making Positions in the Federal Executive Service." Public Personnel Management 42(1):75-89.
Abstract: Does the bureaucracy represent the interests of the public or react to the partisan and ideological demands of political principals? This study uses data from the federal workforce reports and the U.S. Office of Personnel Management’s Central Personnel Data File to demonstrate that partisanship and ideology influence the demographic composition of the federal senior executives. The analysis indicates that fluctuation between administrations is largely attributed to presidents nominating and appointing individuals who share similar ideological views. The analysis also suggests that political control by ideologically driven principals has the potential to perpetuate divisiveness over polarizing issues. The partisan and ideological influences that continue to influence access to policy-making positions contribute to the perpetuation of patterned disparities in the representation of interests and undermine government performance.
URL: https://sites.google.com/site/professorochs/research
Ochs, Holona LeAnne. 2012. “Philanthropic Social Ventures: A Framework and Profile of the Emerging Field.” Journal of Public Management and Social Policy 18(1):3-26.
Abstract: The capacity to differentiate a public and direct the corresponding interest has tremendous potential to affect the opportunities available and shape the access to those opportunities. Shifts in influence and sector boundaries between the public, private, and nonprofit sector continue to be a source of tension over the legitimacy of collective, private, and voluntary action in matters described as the ?public interest? in the United States. This paper outlines a framework for understanding venture philanthropy in the United States. I provide a profile of the characteristics of philanthropic social ventures that have their base of operations in the United States and describe the legal environment in which they operate. This paper concludes with a discussion of the opportunities, challenges, dilemmas, and implications of this ?new? philanthropy and offers some directions for future research.
URL: http://www.jpmsp.com/volume-18/vol18-iss1
Ochs, Holona LeAnne. 2009. "Public Participation in Policing: The Impact of Citizen Oversight on the Incidence of Lethal Force Over Time in the Largest U.S. Cities." Justice Research and Policy 11 (1):105-140.
Abstract: Does public participation through citizen review boards result in more responsible policing or does public oversight in this form amount to political ?interference? resisted by the police? How do the various models of reactive external review impact police use of lethal force in a democratic society? In this article, I argue that citizen participation has the potential to serve the public and the police well when adequately designed and that reactive approaches to external review of the police may not have the intended effect on the incidence of lethal force over time. Specifically, the random effects negative binomial regression reveals that the process audit model of citizen review increases the incidence of lethal force. This study highlights the need for future investigations that focus on the few proactive approaches to citizen review in which the patterns and trends in policies, supervision, and training may offer more lucrative opportunities for participation that generates innovative problem-solving. Future study is also needed to determine the requisite circumstances for fostering mutually beneficial monitoring. The setting for this study on the long-run monitoring role of citizen review is a sample of 30 of the largest U.S. cities from 1994 to 2004.
URL: http://jrsa.metapress.com/content/2uu242w02418583k/
Ochs, Holona LeAnne. 2011. “The Politics of Inclusion: Black Political Incorporation and the Incidence of Lethal Force.” Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice 9 (3): 238-265.
Abstract: Scholarship on the incorporation of Blacks in government and politicsrnhas focused on electoral gains and representational styles, butrnthe broad, substantive benefits of inclusion have yet to be established.rnUtilizing data from 1994 to 2004 for 30 of the 60 largestrnU.S. cities, random-effects negative binomial regressions for panelrndata show that the political incorporation of Black elected officialsrnreduces the likelihood of the incidence of lethal force over time,rnwith significance reaching the .01 level in each of 3 models. Thisrnstudy confirms that inclusion contributes to democratic policing byrnreducing enforcement costs and increasing legitimacy.
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15377938.2011.594363

Substantive Focus:
Governance SECONDARY
Social Policy PRIMARY

Theoretical Focus:
Policy Process Theory PRIMARY
Agenda-Setting, Adoption, and Implementation SECONDARY