Mani Nepal

South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics (SANDEE) & Tribhuvan University

P.O. Box 8975
Dhapakhel, Lalitpur
EPC 1056 |  Visit Personal Website

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My current reserch focus is in the area of climate change adaptation, REDD+ program and its impact on rural livehood, valuation of ecosystem services, non-market valuation, policy evaluation for greener growth, and adoption of cleaner technology and impact on health and energy consumption in developing countries.

Nepal, Mani and Bohara, Alok. 2015. "Consumption Insurance under Uncertainty: The Case of Nepal during Maoist Insurgency.” International Journal of Development and Conflict 5 (1):1-30.
Abstract: We test the implication of the full consumption insurance hypotheses in the presence of violent conflict due to the Maoist People’s War using household survey data from Nepal. We find that food consumption is more vulnerable than non-food consumption if we do not account for the non-linear relationship between the consumption and the level of violence. The level of food consumption vulnerability, however, is not severe for the households with low levels of education and income. Contrary to the common notion of vulnerability of low-caste/ethnic group, we find complete consumption insurance for this socially excluded social group. This result is surprising as the socially disadvantaged caste/ethnic group has been considered more vulnerable in Nepal.
'Rai, Rajesh, Shyamsundar, Priya., Nepal, Mani, and Bhatta, Laxmi. 2015. Differences in Demand for Watershed Services: Understanding Preferences Through a Choice Experiment in the Koshi Basin of Nepal." Ecological Economics 119:274-283.
Abstract: We undertake a choice experiment in order to identify differences in local demand for watershed services in the Koshi basin of Nepal. We first examine the possibility of using a non-monetary numéraire to estimate household willingness-to-pay for watershed services. Survey results indicate that while some 50% of the population is willing to pay in monetary terms for environmental services, this number goes up to 75% when asked to contribute in labor time. Social benefits from environmental services are 1.4 to 2.2 times higher in labor hours relative to benefits estimated in monetary terms. Thus, in developing countries, households are more likely to express their demand for watershed services by offering their time rather than making a monetary payment as rural households are cash-constrained. Our results also suggest that locational differences matter. Down-stream community members, who practice commercial vegetable farming, have a higher demand for watershed services and are willing to pay a third more than upstream farmers for these services.
Nepal, Mani, Alok Bohara and Kishore Gawande. 2011. "More Inequality More Killings: The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal.” American Journal of Political Science 55 (4):885-905.
Abstract: The hypothesis of inequality as the source of violent conflict is investigated empirically in the context of killings by Nepalese Maoists in their People’s War against their government during 1996–2003. The dependent variable is the total number of people killed during that period by Maoist rebels in each of 3,857 villages. Inequality is measured by the Gini, the Esteban- Ray polarization index, and four other between-groups indexes. Using models with district fixed effects, and instrumenting for endogeneity of the inequality measures, we find strong evidence that greater inequality escalated killings by Maoists. Poverty did not necessarily increase violence. Education moderated the effect of inequality on killing, while predominance of farmers and of Nepali speakers exacerbated it.We find evidence that more killings occurred in populous villages, lending support to the idea that violence was directed at expanding the Maoist franchise by demonstrating that opposition to the monarchy and elites in power was possible to achieve.
Nepal, Mani, Enamul Haque, Priya Shyamsunder and Zakir Hossain. 2014. “Red Wells and Green Wells – Does Information Reduce Exposure to Arsenic Contaminated Water in Bangladesh?” Environment and Development Economics: Essays in Honour of Sir Partha Dasgupta. Scott Barrett, Karl-Göran Mäler, and Eric Maskin, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Abstract: In many rural areas, the government of Bangladesh informs its citizenry about arsenic contaminated tube-wells by painting them red (for contaminated) or green (for clean). There are also many awareness programs undertaken by NGOs. However, poor households do not always have adequate substitutes to arsenic contaminated water and may continue to use ‘poisonous’ water. This study seeks to understand if the government’s red-green strategy and NGO awareness campaigns have been successful in reducing exposure to arsenic in the short run. The study examines survey data on 5563 individuals (878 households) in two Upazillas (sub-districts), Matlab and Laksman, from 2005. These Upazillas are located in the southeastern part of Bangladesh and only 24 and 32% of tubewells in these areas are considered safe. The study seeks to answer three questions: a) do households reduce their use of contaminated water in response to information campaigns? b) do the households that are able to reduce their exposure to red wells have specific characteristics, i.e. are they wealthy or have larger families, allowing them to find alternatives? And c) what are some technologies and sources of water used to reduce exposure and at what cost to households? Addressing these questions will allow for a better understanding of the impact of government and NGO activities and may enable the designing of better strategies. URL:

Substantive Focus:
Economic Policy SECONDARY
Energy and Natural Resource Policy
Environmental Policy PRIMARY
Health Policy
Social Policy

Theoretical Focus:
Policy Analysis and Evaluation PRIMARY