William Dean Schreckhise

University of Arkansas
Political Science

428 Old Main
Fayetteville, AR
USA
72701
schreckw@uark.edu

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I do work that evaluates the policymaking system from a variety of normative perspectives. I also examine the implementation of public policy, and the role that local political, economic, and social contexts, and implementor attitudes play in shaping the implementation of public programs.

Citation:
Hansen, Kenneth, and William D. Schreckhise. 2004. “Balancing the Green and the Gold in the Natural State: Citizen Trust, Economic Growth, and Environmental Protection in Arkansas.” American Review of Politics 25:175-183.
Abstract: Through a survey of 767 Arkansas residents, we determine to what extent residents trust state officials to balance the “green” of environmental protection with the “gold” of economic development. We find respondents are split on their feelings of trust, with only a little over half stating they trust state officials on this matter. Feelings of trust are related to positive attitudes toward the state’s environmental protection agency, assessments of the state leaders’ desire for input, projections of the general direction of the state, personal retrospective economic evaluations, residence in a non-farming region, and a liberal political ideology. The degrees to which respondents stated they thought economic development and environmental protection were priorities which were not related to feelings of trust, suggesting that trust is a product of a variety of factors, none of which include assessments of how state officials are, in fact, balancing the “green” and the “gold.”
URL: https://journals.shareok.org/arp/article/download/432/394
Citation:
Ryan, Jeffrey, Jorge Alatorre, and William D. Schreckhise. 2006. “Governmental Transparency and Ethics in Arkansas and Jalisco. A Comparative Case Study of State Ethics Reform in Jalisco and Arkansas.” Public Integrity 8(4):349-366.
Abstract: This article is a Most Different Systems comparative case study of the development of the Arkansas Ethics Commission and the Transparency Law of Jalisco, Mexico. These measures resulted from widespread citizen suspicion of government, but were shaped by the different political and economic forces in the two states. Although their adoption may have been merely symbolic, both measures have evolved. In Arkansas, the commission is approaching (albeit slowly) a mechanism that effectively regulates the ethical behavior of public officials. Jalisco's law was an apprehensive first step, possibly to be followed by additional changes. An examination of these related reforms, and the historical and political contexts in which they were generated, offers insight into the dynamics of ethics reform.
URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.2753/PIN1099-9922080403
Citation:
Kerr, J. Brinck, III, William Miller, William D. Schreckhise, and Margaret Reid. 2013. “When Does Politics Matter? A Reexamination of the Determinants of African American and Latino Municipal Employment Patterns.” Urban Affairs Review 49(6): 888 - 912.
Abstract: We develop a revised theory of political influence that addresses the relationship between minority political representation and administrative-level municipal employment patterns among African-Americans and Latinos in U.S. cities. We conduct pooled time-series analysis on employment data from the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission for years 1987 through 2001. We find that the dynamics of political representation are different for African-Americans and Latinos. Cities with African-American mayors or city managers tend to have more African-Americans serving in administrative positions in municipal agencies. Although this mayoral/city manager effect is not found for Latino employment, more Latino council members lead to more Latino administrators. We also find that African-American employment gains resulting from political representation are more likely to occur in agencies that have the most policy relevance for African-Americans, yet this is not the case for Latino employment. Our results suggest strongly that political processes—conceptualized as the relationship between political leadership and administrative-level hiring and retention—work differently for African-Americans than they do for Latinos.
URL: http://uar.sagepub.com/content/49/6/888.short
Citation:
Chand, Daniel, and William D. Schreckhise. 2015. “Secure Communities and Community Values: Local Context and Discretionary Implementation of Immigration Law Enforcement.” Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 41(10): 1621-1643.
Abstract: In an effort to target dangerous criminals in the United States illegally, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) developed the nationwide deportation programme called Secure Communities. Ostensibly a nationwide programme, the use of this programme instead varies widely across the United States, with some jurisdictions seeing large numbers of deportations, with many others seeing none. Employing ICE deportation data and ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models, we examine what accounts for this variation. We find that local political attitudes play a role, with Republican-leaning jurisdictions and those in states that support restrictive state-level immigration witnessing more deportations. Perhaps surprisingly, jurisdictions with the most crime actually saw fewer. These dynamics were similar for models predicting both the number of deportations of individuals with criminal records and those without them. Instead of being driven by a desire to remove high-level criminal undocumented aliens, we conclude instead that the dynamics of this federal immigration enforcement effort are influenced by the local political setting.
URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1369183X.2014.986441
Citation:
Dooley, Price, and William D. Schreckhise. 2016. “An Evaluation Study: Does the Workforce Investment Act Impact Secondary Student Retention in Selected Mississippi Delta Communities?” Youth and Society 48(3):383-401.
Abstract: This study evaluates the Youth Development Program (YDP), a component of the federal Workforce Investment Act (WIA). We examine whether the YDP reduced dropout rates among youth in secondary schools in seven school districts in the impoverished Mississippi River Delta in southeast Arkansas. Initially, the program seems to have an impact. Students who participate in the program are less likely to drop out of school than students in a comparison group. However, when other factors are taken into consideration, such as whether the student was “over-age” for their grade (and thus likely had been “held back”), the effect that program participation had on the likelihood of dropping out disappears. In short, we find that when controlling for other factors, no statistically significant relationship exists between program participation and dropout rates. We discuss the implications of the WIA’s YDP failure and school retention programs, more broadly.
URL: http://yas.sagepub.com/content/early/2013/07/08/0044118X13493445.abstract
Citation:
Bradley, Faith, William Schreckhise, and Daniel Chand. “Explaining States' Responses to the REAL ID Act: The Role of Resources, Political Environment, and Implementor Attitudes in Complying with a Federal Mandate.” Journal of the Knowledge Economy (Published online October 2015 ahead of print.)
Abstract: Fifteen state legislatures in the USA have enacted statutes prohibiting their states from complying with the federal REAL ID Act. This article seeks to explain why those states have explicitly opposed the act’s requirements. We determine to what extent state-level noncompliance is a product of the resources available to the state for compliance, the state’s political environment, the attitudes of key implementors in the state government, and the states’ level of concern with matters related to immigration. We find that the attitude of each state’s key implementor is the best predictor of whether a state has opted to oppose the act’s implementation.
URL: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13132-015-0295-y
Citation:
Chand, Daniel E., William D. Schreckhise, and Marianne L. Bowers. “The Dynamics of Local Context and Immigration Asylum Hearing Decisions.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory (published online July 2016 ahead of print).
Abstract: Immigration judges (IJs) preside over cases related to immigration law, determining whether an individual should be granted asylum. The few prior studies of IJs have focused on factors of interest to judicial politics scholars, such as characteristics of the judge or applicant in a case. Drawing from public administration literature, we add a new set of factors related to local and state context in which the IJ works. Using multilevel regression analysis, we examine the decisions of 245 IJs made from fiscal years 2009 through 2014. Indeed, it appears context is important. We find IJs grant asylum less often in communities where citizens more often vote Republican and where the local economy is poor. Judges in states where statewide agencies have opted to participate in the restrictive immigration program 287(g) also granted significantly lower percentages of asylum applications. States with Democratic governors and state legislative majorities granted asylum more often, as do IJs working in United States-Mexico border communities. With respect to traditional factors, judges with more experience and those that hear higher percentages of cases involving individuals from Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras, grant significantly fewer petitions for asylum. Judges who hear high percentages of petitions from applicants with attorneys grant significantly more asylums.
URL: http://jpart.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2016/07/13/jopart.muw043.abstract

Substantive Focus:
Law and Policy PRIMARY
Energy and Natural Resource Policy
Environmental Policy
Social Policy SECONDARY

Theoretical Focus:
Policy Process Theory
Agenda-Setting, Adoption, and Implementation PRIMARY
Policy Analysis and Evaluation SECONDARY

Keywords

SOCIAL POLICY IMPLEMENTATION IMMIGRATION POLICY ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY