Michele Matis Hoyman

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Department of Political Science

361 Hamilton Hall
Campus Box 3265
Chapel Hill, NC

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My current research falls into three areas. (1) I am interested in the relationship between social capital and economic development. (2) I am interested in the extent to which local government capacity impacts economic development outcomes. (3) I have an interest in a variety of labor relations issues, in particular the effect of apologies on arbitration outcomes.

Hoyman, Michele M., Stallworth, L., and David Kershaw. 2016. The Role of Apologies in Labor Arbitration Outcomes. Southern Illinois Law Review (Forthcoming). (Forthcoming).
Abstract: This article considers the extent to which apologies provided by grievants affect the rulings of labor arbitrators in discipline and discharge cases. We used an experimental survey design which asked respondents to render awards on hypothetical arbitration cases. Hypothetical cases varied across four variables of importance (1) the (perceived) sincerity of an apology, (2) the timing of the apology, (3) the issue in the case -— sexual harassment, insubordination due to refusal to work, and insubordination due to profanity, and (4) the seniority of the grievant. All members of the National Academy of Arbitrators were surveyed, which provided a total of 180 177 respondents and 1773 hypothetical case decisions. The data show sincere apologies can greatly increase the probability of an arbitrator ruling in favor of the grievant. Apologies perceived as sincere lead to favorable outcomes for grievants, more than apologies which are seen as insincere. However, contrary to the findings of past studies, we found that the timing of an apology does not matter. Whether an apology is offered early or late has little impact on arbitrator rulings. Overall, the data suggest that at least one subjective factor, an apology, plays a large role in determining arbitral outcomes. Our study also found that seniority, which is an objective, case-related factor, is important. In summary, our findings provide quantitative support for theories on how arbitrators weigh subjective factors, or non-case related factors, when deciding cases.
Paarlberg, Laurie, Hoyman, Michele M., and Jamie R. McCall. 2016. Heterogenity, Income Inequality, and Social Capital: A New Perspective. Social Science Quarterly (Forthcoming).
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This paper tests how income inequality mediates and moderates the relationship between racial diversity and social capital. We posit that racial diversity leads to higher levels of income equality, which reduces social capital. We also hypothesize that racial diversity has a stronger negative effect on social capital in places with high levels of income inequality (a compounding effect). METHODS: Drawing upon data from United States counties, we test these models using a series of regression models. RESULTS: Diversity and income inequality have negative effects on social capital. There is also evidence of both mediating and moderating effects. Income inequality partially mediates the negative relationship between diversity and social capital. As income inequality increases, the negative relationship between diversity and social capital decreases. Furthermore, we find that population growth moderates these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between social capital, income inequality, and diversity is complex. Although the direct effect is negative, there is some evidence for key mediating and moderating effects. More conceptual and empirical work is needed to assess the relationship between these concepts.
Brennan, J.F., Parrlberg, L., and Michele M. Hoyman. 2014. "Assembling the Puzzle of the Nonprofit-Economic Development Linkage." Nonprofit Policy Forum 5 (1): 45-65.
Abstract: This study seeks to quantify the impact of the nonprofit sector on economic development by more clearly defining the diverse roles that nonprofits may play in development – instrumental, expressive, and connective. We begin by summarizing existing research on nonprofit organizations and economic development. Using secondary data, we test our model in 360 U.S. metropolitan areas for the years 2001–2006. Do nonprofit organizations produce economic growth? Our statistical findings suggest, “Not really” and “It depends.” While some forms of nonprofit organizations (business associations) are positively related to growth, others such as congregations and social and fraternal associations may have a dampening effect. Overall, our findings suggest complex relationships between individual forms of capital, organizational structures, and development that may be place and time dependent. While our findings currently provide little guidance for policy makers attempting to promote economic development, our findings do have important implications for nonprofit and public policy scholars. Any attempt to explore the relationship between nonprofit activity and development must untangle indicators of individual behavior (church attendance or census return rates) from indicators of organizational structures (such as the number of specific organizations). Second, any effort to understand the impact of the nonprofit sector should disaggregate sector measures based upon a conceptual understanding of the diverse roles of various organizational types (for example, human service organizations versus social and fraternal organizations). Finally, growth and development and the role of the sector are contextual, exhibiting significant regional and temporal variation.
URL: http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/npf.ahead-of-print/npf-2012-0016/npf-2012-0016.xml
Hoyman, Michele M., McCall, Jamie R., Parrlberg, Laurie, and John Brennan. 2016. "Considering the Role of Social Capital for Economic Development Outcomes in US Counties." Economic Development Quarterly (Forthcoming): 1-16.
Abstract: The authors examine major aspects of the connection between social capital and economic development in U.S. counties. They test the conclusions of Putnam, who saw associations as a force for positive development, and Olson, who concluded the opposite. The authors find that Putnam organizations have a negative effect on income, while Olson organizations have a positive effect by decreasing levels of income inequality. Drawing on the literature distinguishing between bridging versus bonding, the authors show that bridging capital has a positive effect on development by increasing per capita income, while bonding capital has a neutral effect on both per capita income and income inequality. Finally, religious variables are tested for their relationship with economic development. Overall, congregation density has a negative influence by increasing per capita income and income inequality, controlling for geographic type. Congregations with bridging characteristics have a mixed effect on development by decreasing income and decreasing inequality.
URL: http://edq.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/07/21/0891242416659135.abstract
Hoyman, Michele M., and Christopher Faricy. 2009. "It Takes a Village: A Test of the Creative Class, Social Capital and Human Capital Theories." Urban Affairs Review 44: 311-333.
Abstract: Richard Florida argues that the ?creative class? is inextricably connected with surges in urban growth. This article, using data from 276 metropolitan statistical areas, empirically tests the creative class theory as compared to the human and social capital models of economic growth. Our results demonstrate that the creative class is not related to growth, whereas human capital predicts economic growth and development and social capital predicts average wage but not job growth. Additionally, we found that clusters of universities correlated highly with economic growth. Our findings should warn policy makers against the use of ?creative? strategies for urban economic development.
URL: http://uar.sagepub.com/content/early/2008/07/22/1078087408321496
Hoyman, Michele M., and Micah Weinberg. 2006. "The Process of Policy Innovation: Prison Sitings in Rural North Carolina." Policy Studies Journal 34 (1): 95-112.
Abstract: We gauge the relative impact of economics, demographics, and politics on the decisions of 79 rural North Carolina counties whether to site a prison in the period 1970?2000. The results of this model demonstrate that, contrary to the expectation that counties site prisons in response to economic distress, the demographic characteristics of each county affect the relative likelihood of a prison siting more than its economics does. The influential demographic predictors are those inextricably bound up with development options?the education levels of its citizens?and those that limit its ability to pursue controversial projects?its not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) constituencies?rather than those that measure its racial diversity. Therefore, prison siting is neither a simple story of economic determinism nor one of environmental racism. We use a proportional hazards regression to model this innovation adoption in response to the challenge to select methods that take the potential time dependence of adoptions into account. A duration model is also particularly suitable for cases such as this one for which the innovation adoption is better understood as a process than as an event.
URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1541-0072.2006.00147.x/abstract
Hoyman, Michele M., and Jamie R. McCall. 2010. "Not imminent in my domain!: County Leaders' Attitudes Toward Eminent Domain Decisions." Public Administration Review 70 (6): 885-893.
Abstract: Eminent domain is an urgent problem facing local government administrators and scholars throughout the United States. However, the literature is sparse regarding how local leaders make decisions on this hot-button issue. A 2006 Government Accountability Office report noted a lack of data about local governments? use of their eminent domain authority. A survey of county managers in North Carolina was conducted to redress this apparent knowledge gap. Although the findings are primarily generalizable only to other Dillon?s rule states, such data demonstrate that eminent domain applies more often for ?narrow? (public use) purposes, such as water and sewer systems, than for ?broad? (public good) purposes, such as economic development. Current and future property considerations also influence eminent domain decisions.
URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2010.02220.x/abstract

Substantive Focus:
Law and Policy SECONDARY
Economic Policy PRIMARY
Environmental Policy
Urban Public Policy

Theoretical Focus:
Policy Analysis and Evaluation PRIMARY