Why the European Union is having difficulty getting its heavy volumes of commercial traffic off the highways and onto intermodal rail. Doing so has been a priority of the European Commission for ten years, and the prospect of reduced energy consumption, pollution and congestion is compelling. Implementation has been delayed by the accompanying restructuring of the member states' railways, which has involved separating rail infrastructure ownership from train operations. The intention was to encourage new international intermodal operators to offer attractively fast and price-competitive services. The difficulty has been in implementing deregulation and coordinating disparate national rail systems. Some have not welcomed newcomers using their tracks, and SNCF, the French national railway, has actually purchased new operators. Technical cooperation poses formidable tasks.
||Madar, Daniel. 2009. Big Steel: Technology, Trade and Survival in a Global Industry. Vancouver. UBC Press. |
||Madar, Daniel. 2000. Heavy Traffic: Deregulation, Trade and Transformation in North American Trucking. Vancouver. UBC Press.|
||Madar, Daniel. 2007. "Trucking." In Handbook of Transportation Policy and Administration, ed. Jeremy Plant. Boca Raton. CRC Press/Taylor and Francis. Invited chapter.|
Policy Process Theory