Creso M. Sá

University of Toronto

252 Bloor Street West
Toronto, Ontario
M5S 1V6

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Sá, Creso, Roger Geiger, and Paul Hallacher. 2008. Universities and State Policy Formation: Rationalizing a Nanotechnology Strategy in Pennsylvania. Review of Policy Research: The Politics and Policy of Science and Technology, 25(1): 1-17.
Abstract: Technology-based economic development programs have become a salient feature of the state policy landscape since the 1980s. While much research exists on the topic, little attention has been given to the processes of policy formation. State programs have moved towards high technology areas emphasized at the federal level over the past decades, and nanotechnology became one of the latest targets. This paper examines the eight-year process through which Pennsylvania adopted a “state-wide strategy,” culminating in the Pennsylvania Initiative for Nanotechnology. In this process, programs that responded to the interests of multiple agents came first, and a state policy was formulated after the fact. This pattern of “rationalized policy formation,” as opposed to rational policy formation, may be more common than suspected. Its strengths and weaknesses in this Pennsylvania case are discussed.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-1338.2007.00306.x
Sá, Creso. 2010. Canadian Provinces and Public Policies for University Research. Higher Education Policy, 23: 335 – 357.
Abstract: There is increasing attention to sub-national regions in science and technology (S&T) policy. This paper examines the recent evolution of provincial S&T policies in the Canadian provinces, focusing on how they link university research to regional technological development. Drawing on multiple sources of data and evidence, this study identifies and analyzes trends in provincial policies over the past decade. From the isolated initiatives established in a few large provinces in the 1980s, we are now witnessing a diversification of S&T programmes across the country, along with the rise of a distinctive provincial policy infrastructure. Among the various types of provincial programmes, there is an emphasis on promoting ‘world class’ science in selected fields, bringing targeted investments in universities’ research capacity.
DOI: 10.1057/hep.2010.12
Sá, Creso and Patricia Gaviria. 2011. How Do Professional Mutual Recognition Agreements Affect Higher education? Examining Regional Policy in North America. Higher Education Policy, 24: 307-330.
Abstract: Professional mutual recognition agreements (MRAs) are one of the policy instruments employed in global and regional trade agreements to facilitate the mobility of skilled labour. While such agreements have been noted in the literature examining cross-border academic mobility, little is known about how they impact higher education. This paper examines the formation of professional MRAs in North America since the passing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), focusing on three fields: engineering, architecture, and accounting. In the three professions, asymmetries characterizing the NAFTA partners led to system-level reforms in Mexico. The paper discusses how and why the institutional arrangements governing professional higher education in the country were ‘harmonized’ with those of the United States and Canada.
DOI: 10.1057/hep.2011.6
Sá, Creso and Jeff Litwin. 2011. University-Industry Research Collaborations in Canada: The Role of Federal Policy Instruments. Science and Public Policy, 38(6): 425-435.
Abstract: Canada's research policy has aimed to facilitate technology transfer from universities and induce innovation in industry for the past three decades. This article examines the policy instruments currently employed by the federal government in Canada to stimulate university-industry research linkages. First, the article examines the national landscape of industry R&D and its interface with university research. Then, multiple policy instruments are identified, and their goals and functions are examined. Finally, the article discusses the main features and implications of Canada's policy approach.

Substantive Focus:
Education Policy
Science and Technology Policy
Comparative Public Policy

Theoretical Focus:
Policy History
Policy Analysis and Evaluation